More extensive evidence, largely ignored or brushed over by most of the agnostic scientific community, is contained in the excellent book In the Beginning by Walter T. More on that later. Let’s first look at: If an animal mates with another animal not of its exact species, the result will be a sterile creature e. If animals of a given species mate and produce an abnormal offspring i. Therefore, how could the macro evolutionary process advance? How could a “mutant” i. It would first have to be fertile itself. It would have to find a sexually compatible mate who was also fertile during its relatively miniscule life span on the overall evolutionary time scale. Thirdly, their offspring would also have to be fertile and be able to continue the advance.
Six Secrets of Polonium
Gentry by [Last Updated: It can be an especially difficult challenge when the Creationist author has professional credentials and has published in mainstream scientific journals. One such individual is Robert Gentry, who holds a Master’s degree in Physics and an honorary doctorate from the fundamentalist Columbia Union College.
chemical element with the atomic number of
His calculations did not account for heat produced via radioactive decay a process then unknown to science or, more significantly, convection inside the Earth, which allows more heat to escape from the interior to warm rocks near the surface. For biologists, even million years seemed much too short to be plausible. In Darwin’s theory of evolution , the process of random heritable variation with cumulative selection requires great durations of time.
According to modern biology, the total evolutionary history from the beginning of life to today has taken place since 3. Huxley , attacked Thomson’s calculations, suggesting they appeared precise in themselves but were based on faulty assumptions. The physicist Hermann von Helmholtz in and astronomer Simon Newcomb in contributed their own calculations of 22 and 18 million years respectively to the debate: However, they assumed that the Sun was only glowing from the heat of its gravitational contraction.
The process of solar nuclear fusion was not yet known to science.
Get daily updates directly to your inbox Subscribe Thank you for subscribingSee our privacy notice Could not subscribe, try again laterInvalid Email The death of former KGB agent Alexander Litvinenko by radiation poisoning is still damaging relations between the UK and Russia. Litvinenko was poisoned by radioactive polonium , an unusual choice but one which has enabled scientists to forensically investigate the trail of the poisoning.
Polonium is found naturally in uranium ores, as it is formed as part of the route by which atoms of uranium decay to lead, although as explained later this was not the source of the polonium which killed Litvinenko. Each different element has a particular number of particles in its nucleus called protons.
The World Health Organization’s Department of Public Health and Environment has prepared the following information about Polonium Basic facts about Polonium Po is a naturally occurring radioactive material.
The letter m is sometimes appended after the mass number to indicate a nuclear isomer , a metastable or energetically-excited nuclear state as opposed to the lowest-energy ground state , for example m 73Ta The common pronunciation of the AZE notation is different from how it is written: For example, 14 C is a radioactive form of carbon, whereas 12 C and 13 C are stable isotopes. There are about naturally occurring nuclides on Earth,  of which are primordial nuclides , meaning that they have existed since the Solar System ‘s formation.
Primordial nuclides include 32 nuclides with very long half-lives over million years and that are formally considered as ” stable nuclides “,  because they have not been observed to decay. In most cases, for obvious reasons, if an element has stable isotopes, those isotopes predominate in the elemental abundance found on Earth and in the Solar System. However, in the cases of three elements tellurium, indium, and rhenium the most abundant isotope found in nature is actually one or two extremely long-lived radioisotope s of the element, despite these elements having one or more stable isotopes.
Of the nuclides never observed to decay, only 90 of these all from the first 40 elements are theoretically stable to all known forms of decay. Element 41 niobium is theoretically unstable via spontaneous fission , but this has never been detected. Many other stable nuclides are in theory energetically susceptible to other known forms of decay, such as alpha decay or double beta decay, but no decay products have yet been observed, and so these isotopes are said to be “observationally stable”.
The predicted half-lives for these nuclides often greatly exceed the estimated age of the universe, and in fact there are also 27 known radionuclides see primordial nuclide with half-lives longer than the age of the universe. Adding in the radioactive nuclides that have been created artificially, there are 3, currently known nuclides. See list of nuclides for details.
Radioactive isotopes[ edit ] The existence of isotopes was first suggested in by the radiochemist Frederick Soddy , based on studies of radioactive decay chains that indicated about 40 different species referred to as radioelements i.
“Polonium Haloes” Refuted
Get daily news updates directly to your inbox Subscribe Thank you for subscribingWe have more newsletters Show me See our privacy notice Could not subscribe, try again laterInvalid Email Taking a sip of tea at Mayfair’s Millennium Hotel, Litvinenko was blissfully unaware his life was in danger. He died 22 days later – the tea he was drinking was laced with Polonium It sounds like something directly out of a spy novel, but the element Polonium is a very real, very deadly substance.
A single gram of it purified could kill as many as 50 million people. With the death of Russian spy Sergei Skirpal all over the news, the element has come up again in investigations around how he died. Sergei Skripal was poisoned Image:
Carbon-dating uses the half-life of Carbon to find the approximate age of an object that is 40, years old or younger. Radiographers use half-life information to make adjustments in the film exposure time due to the changes in radiation intensity that occurs as radioisotopes degrade.
However, the team of seven creation scientists have discovered incredible physical evidence that supports what the Bible says about the young age of the earth. The results of the RATE team supposedly bring into question the accuracy of radiometric dating , attempt to show a young Earth , and support the reliability of the Bible. Snelling , and Russell Humphreys , all of which have accredited degrees in their respective fields.
Their study focus included Polonium halos , dating of Grand Canyon rocks, potassium-argon and argon-argon dating, helium diffusion in zircons, and Carbon 14 decay. RATE’s cherry picking and shoehorning of scientific data is matched only by their blatant disregard for legitimate scientific study and the scientific method. Their work has been largely discredited by a diverse number of physicists, engineers, geologists, and religious organizations.
Such acceleration would reduce the radioisotopic time scale from megayears down to months. This assertion is false. Since I had previously demonstrated that an explanation consistent with the established position of the scientific community is possible, an equal if not greater burden lies with Humphreys to disprove that model, which he has not yet done.
Dating – Importance of zircon in uranium-lead dating …
The autopsy found that the radiation that killed him came from a rare and short-lived isotope of Polonium, Polonium The reason for its rarity— the entire known production is no more than 4 ounces per year— is that is produced in a nuclear reactor using uranium , the fuel of nukes. Only a handful of nuclear reactors, all in Russia, are permitted to produce it.
Once produced, it cannot be stockpiled for long since it has a half-life of only The supply of Polonium is also tightly-controlled by an international regime. Virtually all the Russian production is now exported to the US, where it is reduced into harmless trace amounts that are then chemically-bonded into plastic and ceramic for industrial use.
He was served tea spiked with Polonium , a radioactive isotope. — Ellen Barry, New York Times, “Dawn Latest Russian Dissident to Meet Tragedy on British Soil,” 6 Mar. Like radiocarbon dating, uranium-thorium dating relies on how the radioactive isotopes have decayed to find a date.
We Live in a Radioactive World The uses of radioactive materials, many of which generate low-level radioactive waste, have become an integral part of modern life. We do live in a radioactive world. Radioactivity is all around us. It is in rocks, in soil, in water. In the air we breathe and the food we eat. It is in us. We don’t have to sit on the beach to get exposed to radiation.
Nuclear forensics international technical working group
Cesium – 30 yrs. Knowledge of the half-life of an isotope is useful in almost all calculations involving tracer isotopes. It also leads to an interesting use for naturally occurring isotopes:
Why was Polonium discovered? Curie was attempting to to explain why pitchblende (a form of the mineral uraninite) from Joachimsthal, Bohemia was radioactive. Polonium was the cause, and it took several tons of pitchblende to yield very small amounts (10 -6 g per ton of ore).
Pierre and Marie Curie Pierre and Marie Curie are best known for their pioneering work in the study of radioactivity, which led to their discovery in of the elements radium and polonium. Maria Sklodowska in Warsaw, Poland, Nov. July 4, , spent many impoverished years as a teacher and governess before she joined her sister Bronia in Paris in order to study mathematics and physics at the Sorbonne, earning degrees in both subjects in and In the spring of the latter year she met the physicist Pierre Curie.
They married a year later, and Marie subsequently gave birth to two daughters, Irene and Eve Paris, May 15, , d. He discovered the phenomenon of piezoelectricity, whereby changes in the volume of certain crystals excite small electric potentials. Along with work on crystal symmetry, Pierre Curie studied the magnetic properties of materials and constructed a torsion balance with a tolerance of 0. He discovered that the magnetic susceptibility of paramagnetic materials is inversely proportional to the absolute temperature Weiss-Curie’s law and that there exists a critical temperature above which the magnetic properties disappear Curie temperature.
Poisoning of Alexander Litvinenko
She named polonium in honor of her homeland Poland which officially did not exist at the time, as it had been occupied by neighboring countries. It is highly unstable, and all isotopes are radioactive. Here are some of the more interesting things we know about the element. In , Russian ex-KGB agent Alexander Litvinenko , who was living in the United Kingdom after claiming political asylum, died after being poisoned with polonium A British investigation identified Andrei Lugovoy, a former officer in the Russian Federal Protective Service, as the main suspect in the case, but Russia refused to extradite him.
Lugovoy is now a member of the Russian lower house of parliament, the Duma.
A review of the literature shows that of the 22 localities containing polonium radiohalos so far reported,4 Stone Mountain granite has, to date, not been subjected to microscopic evaluation for the presence of polonium radiohalos.
There are only about micrograms in every tonne of ore. So the polonium used to kill Litvinenko must have been made relatively recently. How would someone get hold of polonium ? With difficulty, unless they had access to a nuclear facility. Around g a year of Po are manufactured worldwide in nuclear reactors, by bombarding bismuth with neutrons. Since alpha particles can be stopped by skin or paper, let alone a glass vial, it would be feasible to smuggle a tiny amount into the country.
How does polonium kill? The maximum safe body burden of Po is only seven picograms. A microgram of Po , which is no larger than a speck of dust, would certainly deliver a fatal dose of radiation. Once ingested, polonium is rapidly distributed around the body, leaving a trail of reactive radicals in its wake as it steals electrons from any molecule it encounters. Low-level DNA damage from radiation can cause genetic changes that affect cell replication, whereas more severe damage may force the cell to self destruct by apoptosis.
How do we know polonium killed Litvinenko? He suffered rapid hair loss and immune system collapse, two symptoms of extreme radiation exposure. Despite early theories that radioactive thallium was to blame, Po emits alpha particles with a characteristic energy of around 5.
Polonium poisoning – in a cup of tea
The discovery of the radioactive properties of uranium in by Henri Becquerel subsequently revolutionized the way scientists measured the age of artifacts and supported the theory that Earth was considerably older than what some scientists believed. However, one of the most widely used and accepted method is radioactive dating. All radioactive dating is based on the fact that a radioactive substance, through its characteristic disintegration, eventually transmutes into a stable nuclide.
When the rate of decay of a radioactive substance is known, the age of a specimen can be determined from the relative proportions of the remaining radioactive material and the product of its decay. In , the American chemist Bertram Boltwood demonstrated that he could determine the age of a rock containing uranium and thereby proved to the scientific community that radioactive dating was a reliable method.
Uranium , whose half-life is 4.
Using logarithms to solve real world problems The decay function for Polonium P is, where is an initial amount of Polonium P in the sample, Carbon Dating The following introductory info is from the Internet NDT Resource Center article Carbon Dating.
For example, when you ask an evolutionist how they come up with the age of the sedimentary layers in the earth, they will always tell you they date them by the fossils found in those sedimentary layers. But how can that be? How can the rocks date the layers, if the layers date the rocks? The evolutionist agrees with Darwin and says all life on earth evolved from primordial soup, which then somehow formed into many different species like birds, animals, plants, fish etc; and those birds, animals, plants and fish evolved into many different types of species themselves.
For example, they believe a bird later formed different types of lizards, horses and dogs. They also believe that plants created everything from vines to trees to flowers, and fish evolved into dinosaurs, apes and humans. Scientific fact is, we still have many of the old species among us, and we know of many that did in fact become extinct.
But not a single bird has been found that used to be a fish. And not a single bird has been found that is related to a lizard.
Radiometric Dating and Creation Science
Please go to http: Understanding the Pb Method The Pb method is used to determine the accumulation rate of sediments in lakes, oceans and other water bodies. In a typical application, the average accumulation rate over a period of – years is obtained. From the accumulation rate, the age of sediment from a particular depth in the sediment column can be estimated. Pb is a naturally occurring radioactive element that is part of the uranium radioactive decay series.
The radioactive element uranium has an almost infinite half-life 4.
Polonium is not used for dating. 1 person found this useful What is Polonium used for? Answer. It can be alloyed with beryllium to provide a source of neutrons. It can eliminate static charges in textile mills.. It .
A team of experts, including from Lausanne University Hospital’s Institute of Radiation Physics, opened Arafat’s grave in the West Bank city of Ramallah last November, and took samples from his body to seek evidence of alleged poisoning. Arafat signed the Oslo interim peace accords with Israel and led a subsequent uprising after the failure of talks in on a comprehensive agreement.
Allegations of foul play surfaced immediately. Arafat had foes among his own people, but many Palestinians pointed the finger at Israel, which had besieged him in his Ramallah headquarters for the final two and a half years of his life. The Israeli government has denied any role in his death, noting that he was 75 years old and had an unhealthy lifestyle. An investigation by the Qatar-based Al Jazeera television news channel first reported last year that traces of polonium were found on personal effects of Arafat given to his widow by the French military hospital where he died.